WP4 Advanced monitoring technologies

A bank of monitors displaying abstract image
credit - Panuwat Sikham

Our project consortium brings together world-leading expertise in the fields of CO2 storage and shale gas monitoring. We will draw on this expertise to develop new technologies that will improve the detection and monitoring of environmental impacts for geoenergy projects.

The research team will develop state-of-the-art sensors to monitor flow leaks and geomechanical stresses. New technologies that will increase the range of detection for toxic quantities that fall below the detection limit of current sensors will also be tested.

The results will enable both large-scale and remote monitoring of shale gas and CCS sites, providing a flexible portfolio of techniques and sensors for project developers and operators.


D4.8 Development of a Downhole Sampler and Integrated Analysis System for In-Situ Deep Fluids Analysis Including Noble Gases

We explain the results of two field missions for testing and improving a downhole sampler and integrated analysis system. The first mission identified important air contamination issues and difficulties with low gas-water ratio fluids. Modifications addressed these and were tested in the second mission, where significant improvements were observed. In the second mission, sampling took place at ~800 m, and the analysis of the geochemical composition of the dissolved gas showed both the origin of gas and the character of the hydrogeology at that depth was successfully achieved.

D4.7 Guidelines for Next Generation Measurement and Monitoring of Shale Gas/CCS with Guidance for Practitioners of the Future

This report summarises various topics related to CO2 storage or fracturing of shale covering, for example, groundwater geochemistry (gas), molecular microbiology, (micro) seismicity, ground movement and atmospheric gas concentrations. We summarise the principles of the different methods, the parameters measured, with indications of coverage, ease of use and to whether automation is, or could be, an option since this is a critical parameter for continuous monitoring at remote locations.

D4.6 Report on the Effectiveness of Gas and Microbial Sensors and How They Will Link In With Current Baseline Monitoring Strategies in WP3

The effectiveness of novel isotope based methodologies and microbial analyses to monitor gas seepages were studied. Methods aimed at in-situ detection of gas seepages used clumped isotopes to study the origin of methane and/or CO2 gas by determining its (subsurface) gas formation temperature. The work presented in this report suggests that combining microbial techniques with established geochemical (isotope) methods allows for assessment of the source of leaking gas.

D4.5 Report on integrated local-global geomechanics

This research focusses on coupling the local to the global geomechanical characterization of subsurface reservoirs. The theoretical framework for the coupling of geomechanical and flow involving the solutions of the poroelasticity equations is outlined for both the local and field scale.

Based on the field scale coupled reservoir-geomechanical modelling results at the Borzecin structure, Poland, rock physics models were used to calculate the elastic parameters (Vp, Vs, and density) that are the observables effecting the seismic response. 

D4.4 Report on modelling and simulation

This document focuses on the development of Modelling and Simulation tools, suitable for integration of monitoring data. Available monitoring data for CCS and Shale Gas, and more generally geoenergy applications, are often sparse and heterogeneous in space, type, and time. We address these shortcomings by developing a new open-source set of reservoir multi-physics simulation tools, based on OpenFOAM®, a widely used library for computational fluid dynamics in academic and industrial settings. Building up on OpenFOAM® robustness and flexibility we developed key models and solvers for geoenergy applications including flow and transport solvers, multi-continuum formulations for heterogeneous media, geomechanics, multiphase capabilities, geostatistics tools.

D4.3 Report on the potential for exploiting methane oxidiser genes for monitoring stray methane intruding into aquifers and assessment of the area that can be monitored

It has been proposed that microbial communities respond differently to methane and other short chain alkanes, and may be used to identify leaking hydrocarbons. Molecular and microbial growth assays were used to test whether the microbial community of groundwater samples can be linked to the groundwater methane concentration or methane/ethane ratios.  Indicator microorganisms including propane oxidisers like Nocardia, or methane oxidisers like “Candidatus Methanoperedens” were identified in samples from two field sites. Microbial diversity under selective hydrocarbon growth assays, and the presence of indicator microorganisms warrant further exploration to provide additional tools for detection of methane leaks in groundwater.  

D4.2 Report on best practice methods for monitoring induced and triggered seismicity

Monitoring best practice

Best practice for monitoring induced and triggered seismicity depends to a high degree on local conditions, but in all cases establishing a high-quality pre-operational baseline is recommended. During operations a local network should be deployed for monitoring and mitigation purposes. If the Traffic Light System is used as a mitigation tool, it is important that the monitoring network has a detection level way below the acceptable level of microseismicty as determined by authorities. The monitoring network at Stenlille, in operation since summer 2018, has not detected any events within the Stenlille gas storage facility, but did detect other events further away: This makes it possible to estimate the detection level within the gas storage area.


D4.1 Report on applicability of UAV technology for monitoring large-scale sites and the impact of remote sensing on decisions of baseline characterisations

This research, undertaken within Subtask 4.1.1 of the SECURe Programme, investigated the efficacy and development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology for large scale greenhouse gas monitoring of shale gas and CCS sites. In particular we addressed strategies to detect and monitor greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) directly with world-leading technology flown on rotary and fixed-wing small UAV platforms

A Combined approach to monitor gas mixtures, containing CO2, in geological systems: aquifers

Armand Karimi, IFPEN   ABSTRACT

Multiphase multi-rate mass transfer model for anomalous transport in fractured and heterogeneous media

Matteo Icardi, University of Nottingham  ABSTRACT


Macroscopic models for heterogeneous reactions in porous mediaFederico Municchi, Matteo Icardi, University of Nottingham

Federico Municchi, Matteo Icardi, University of Nottingham  ABSTRACT

Generalised Multi-Rate Models for conjugate transfer in heterogeneous materials

Federico Municchi, Matteo Icardi, University of Nottingham  ABSTRACT